Geese and Coronaviruses

Some Geese that I came across when I went for a run

I’m sure everyone is aware of the coronavirus that is sweeping across the world, but not everyone is aware that coronaviruses are an extensive group of viruses that can affect both animals and humans. In fact, of hundreds of coronaviruses, only seven are known to affect people. Generally speaking, they cause upper respiratory tract illnesses that are mild to moderate in severity. Some, however, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and the famous SARS-CoV-2 are known to be much more serious, even causing death.

The three aforementioned fatal coronaviruses have been responsible for 3 outbreaks. The SARS coronavirus, or SARS-CoV originated in China in November 2002 and spread worldwide before disappearing in 2004. The MERS coronavirus, which originated from camels, causes smaller outbreaks. And SARS-CoV-2, like SARS-COV, originated in China and has seemingly taken over the world for the past year.

There are 4 different types of coronaviruses: alphacoronaviruses, betacoronaviruses, gammacoronaviruses, and deltacoronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV would fall under the category of betacoronaviruses, which along with alphacoronaviruses are believed to originate from bats. Gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses are more common to birds. I was curious about coronaviruses in my favorite animal, the Canadian goose. Unfortunately, coronaviruses can kill these lovely innocent feathery angels, which makes me very sad.

Geese interlude

Thankfully, back in April of 2019, scientists completely sequenced the genome of a new coronavirus that has been killing many Canada and Snow geese. This virus was determined to be a gammacoronavirus, which has very few known species. This research therefore will be helpful in learning more about the most elusive genus of the coronavirus family.

Sequencing is overall very important for viruses. Many of you may be familiar with how SARS-CoV-2 has been sequenced and there is an online public database with submitted sequences ( Sequencing can help identify different strains of viruses and thus help scientists get a better sense about how the disease is transmitted. I am truly glad that effort is being focused on geese, although I do wonder how preventative measures and treatments will be administered. It’s highly unlikely that geese will wear masks.

The rare lazy geese

Effect of COVID-19 on College Students


It’s me, Katy again… Since my last post, I completed my first quarter of freshman year. I have some free time this winter break to update my blog, so here we are…

When most kids think of college, they think mostly of freedom and friends. Most college students live away from their parents and near all their friends, which results in minimal parent involvement in the overall experience and much easier access to the social aspects of college life. There is also significantly more academic freedom; there are relatively few required courses, and many of the required courses have different options.

I was looking forward to freedom and making many new friends. So when I got my acceptance letter to my dream school (Caltech) in early March, I was overjoyed. I assumed that in around seven months I would have the chance to prove my independence and meet many lovely intelligent and hilarious new people and I was beyond excited!! I love my parents and I know they always have my best interests at heart, but I was ready to prove that I could survive and thrive on my own and maybe be a little rebellious 😉. Eating dessert every day doesn’t sound like a bad idea!

Not long after I got that coveted acceptance letter, California (where I live) issued a stay at home order to the rapid spread of COVID-19. I’ve already written a post here that summarizes the remainder of my high school journey, so I’d like to review the events after that.

Summer was very long (thanks quarter system!), beginning at the end of May and ending at the end of September. I spent the time reviewing certain topics I needed to brush up on. Originally, I had planned on traveling, hanging out with friends, and winning giant stuffed animals but staying home and relaxing was fun too. Over the summer, I had lots of hope but very little confidence that we would have in person classes in the fall. I was hardly surprised when Caltech, located in LA county which has an insanely high number of COVID cases, announced that classes would be completely online for the fall term.

Overall, Caltech and my family both tried their hardest to make the experience enjoyable and similar to what I would experience in college. My parents renovated and cleaned out the shed in my backyard and helped turn it into a dorm room. Caltech ensured that all the fun events, such as orientation, celebratory donuts, and soon rotation are available online. There are many resources available online as well that mimic those we would have on campus, such as the online library and discord servers. The discord servers are especially helpful for collaboration and are my main source of social interaction.

Despite everything, it was difficult to remain in a good mental state. The monotony and lack of face to face interactions made life rather dull and I found myself slowly losing my sanity. I ended up running twice a day just so I could at least see other living breathing human beings (I wore a gaiter though so it was safe despite people not social distancing). At least I had school to look forward to, where I felt very challenged in all of my classes. I learned how to approach problems differently especially in physics and math, and overall I definitely reached a deeper level of understanding in every class.

But enough about me. I’ve shared my experience being a college student during quarantine, and I was interested in seeing if struggling mentally is a widespread phenomenon across college students. So I did some research.

As it turns out, researchers at the University of Ljubljana’s COVID-19 Social Science Lab studied how COVID-19 affected higher education students across the globe while researchers at Texas A&M University studied how COVID-19 affected college students in the United States. Their findings were unsurprising to me and aligned with my experience.

The Texas A&M researchers surveyed 195 US college students about stress; the questions covered stress levels, coping with stress, use of mental health counseling, and significant stressors and their impacts on everyday living. 

  • The results state that 71% of the students reported that their stress and anxiety levels increased, 20% reported that they remained the same, and 9% reported that they decreased. I would fall in the first category, and not simply because college is more stressful than high school. My particular college stresses the importance of collaboration, and, while discord was very helpful for this, nothing could replace in person collaboration in a designated work environment. 
  • Only 10% of the students in the first category used mental health counseling, and as a whole found it difficult to access counseling during the pandemic. I don’t believe I was ever at the point where I needed counseling because I had a large support network, but I can see how it can be too much of a hassle for students who might need it. 
  • 97% of students believed that other students were more stressed during the pandemic. This makes sense and I’ve noticed that everyone seems to be more empathetic during this time because they perceive that others are struggling.
  • Overall, the majority indicated negative impacts on each of various aspects of mundane life. This again makes sense because the pandemic greatly limits the number of things we can do safely.

As I was trying to read the discussion, I couldn’t help but notice that there were a lot of psychology terms I was unfamiliar with. I never took a psychology class in high school because I chose to take other electives instead, which is a shame although I don’t regret the decision. I’ve made a note to come back and read the discussion after I take a psychology class so I can understand more of what it’s saying. I found the fact that college students are particularly prone to higher levels of stress interesting because I assumed that working adults would be under a lot more stress because they have a lot more to focus on that ultimately is of greater importance. Perhaps the anticipation of entering the job market causes more stress than being in the job market itself for some.

The COVID-19 Social Lab studied a global sample– 30383 students from 62 countries– regarding how the early stages of the pandemic affected them. 

  • They were apparently content with support from their professors and their universities’ public relations. This aligns with my views: Caltech professors and the overall institution did an amazing job adjusting to the online learning environment and providing resources to help us adjust. 
  • Interestingly, the article claims that “deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment.” I wonder if the “perception of a higher workload” is due to having to do the work alone rather than with friends, or whether it’s due to unfavorable work environments at home. Or perhaps doing work online is simply more of a hassle due to technology. I always did my homework on my school-issued iPad throughout high school because it was much more efficient than doing homework on paper. I’m guessing that maybe as students adjust to technology, they will begin to perceive their workload as less.
  • Students viewed the pandemic as detrimental to their careers. Overall, this makes sense. Although the economy will likely improve in the near future, this economy is not ideal for entering the job market. Further, many internships and other opportunities to acquire experience in one’s chosen career are canceled or openings are a lot more limited. 
  • Like the previous article, students in this study fell victim to anxiety, stress, frustration, and boredom.
  • Unsurprisingly, the article stated that the pandemic caused students to wash their hands and wear face masks more frequently but leave the house and have physical contact less often.
  • Overall, satisfaction with hospitals and universities was higher than satisfaction with governments and banks. I know that in America, people tend to be very grateful towards hospitals and universities for all their hard work while dissatisfaction with the government was very high and affected the recent elections.
  • The researchers were also able to compare the different demographics: “students with certain socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first-level, applied sciences, a lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life during the crisis, whereas female, full-time, first-level students and students faced with financial problems were generally affected more by the pandemic in terms of their emotional life and personal circumstances.” I find this interesting and understandable, although I haven’t been able to notice this phenomenon myself due to the narrow demographic I associate myself with.

I find it fascinating to learn that people worldwide are coping both similarly and differently with the global pandemic. It’s almost reassuring– this is a universal problem and thus everyone has incentive to cooperate to slow and stop COVID-19.


E huakaʻi me ka palekana…



P. S. So last blog post I introduced you to a new friend I met in the yard. Since then I have made quite a few more friends in the yard and Wap has become a lot more friendly… I have her eating out of my hand…



It’s me, Katy again… Again, it has almost been a month since my last post and I just wanted to say hello…

So far things are going great!! I am really enjoying my first quarter at Caltech. Of course it would be more fun if I were able to be on campus, but I understand the situation and I am adapting. While it is difficult to meet up with some of my new friends in person (due to geography, I am using the opportunity to meet up with some of my local friends who are also at home. We go running together and chat a bit comparing our college experiences, classes and other people 😜 You know who you are…

A few days ago, I was going through my unread emails and I stumbled across an interesting article in the Biohacker Weekly (as you may recall, I took a few classes in Biohacking). Anyways, the article of interest is here:

As I mentioned in my previous blog entry, a couple of months ago I participated in the Young Scientists Journal’s 8th Annual Conference “A Timeline of Science”. I submitted a poster entry and was selected to present my research/poster at the conference (remotely of course). If you are interested in checking out my poster along with others that were submitted, please visit:

The one thing I wanted to add is the link to my talk:

Anyways, that is all for now. I hope you and your families are all healthy and safe!!

E huakaʻi me ka palekana…



P. S. I would like to introduce you to a new friend. As I have been studying in a room in the backyard, a friendly cat came by. I call her WAP.

Go Beavers!!


It’s me, Katy… It has almost been a month since my last post and I just wanted to post a quick update on a few things…

Online classes and remote learning have begun!!! While it may not be the typical college freshman experience, I am still having fun meeting new students, faculty and staff.

This quarter, I am taking Chemistry, Physics, Math, Computer Science and a cool humanities class called “Making Life Legible: Materials and Methods in the History of Modern Biology”. I am also attending lunchtime discussions about research in biology. So far so good.

It takes a little getting used to attending class remotely, but there are quite a few drop-in study groups using Discord. It is kinda cool since there are usually different groups studying different things and/or working on different problem sets, that you can drop in on and ask questions, and participate/collaborate. We were also assigned learning pods. My learning pod has students from various parts of California. It seems like this is like a “home base” or “home room” where you can discuss anything and everything. I love my Pod!!!

At Caltech, our first two quarters are pass/no-pass so that we can adjust to college life while not stressing too much about grades. We do take tests and do homework and they are graded so that we generally know how we are doing and what we can work on so that after the two quarters passes we can hit the ground running.

Speaking of running, I am training for the Caltech Cross Country team. Although our season has been cancelled due to the Covid situation, I still get up early in the mornings to train. Because of all the fires here in Northern California, I usually check the air quality before I run. If it is too unhealthy, I will either postpone my run or use my parents’ treadmill to break a sweat.

I have also signed up for some volunteering opportunities and have started learning about the work study programs at Caltech.

It has been pretty busy these last few weeks, but I am really enjoying it.

One more little thing to note… A couple of weeks ago I participated in the Young Scientists Journal’s 8th Annual Conference “A Timeline of Science”. I submitted a poster entry and was selected to present my research/poster at the conference (remotely of course). If you are interested in checking out my poster along with others that were submitted, please visit:

My talk was recorded, but I am not sure if it will be made available.

Anyways, that is all for now. I hope you and your families are all healthy and safe!!

E huakaʻi me ka palekana…



Woot!!! My third paper was finally posted in an online journal!!!

Hey all!   This morning, another one of my papers was published online in the Young Scientists Journal!!   Yay!!

Please check out the link: “A 3D Cellular Automata Cancer Stem Cell Model using Matlab and App Designer”.

A screenshot of my Appdesigner code

This paper was inspired by some of the summer programs I attended when I was a junior at St. Francis High School in Mountain View, California. During one of my summer programs, Rosetta Institute’s Molecular Biology of Cancer Workshop at Berkeley, we studied various concepts in cancer research and tumor growth. Another program, Stanford EXPLORE Lecture Series on Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, and Genetics, showed me the possible applications of a recently completed computer science course at my high school, which I also really enjoyed. The lecturer mentioned different analytical tools and software like MATLAB and Wolfram Mathematica and said how they were useful in research. After looking deeper into several of the topics covered in the lecture series, I stumbled across the concept of Cellular Automata (CA) and how it may be able to model the growth of cancerous tumor cells.

One of the CA simulations I ran

I wanted to examine Cellular Automata for myself and the analytical tool I chose was MathWorks’ MATLAB and I took an online MATLAB class. In hindsight, I probably should have used Mathematica, since later on I found out that Stephen Wolfram (the person responsible for Wolfram Mathematica engaged in a systematic study of one-dimensional cellular automata). Anyways, after completing an online course in MATLAB and Appdesigner, I wanted to see if I could create a simple model in MATLAB so I could examine the various parameters that lead to cancerous tumor growth and what parameters may help with the treatment of cancer. The paper is a result of my studies.

It did take awhile to get the paper finally published as I submitted it for publication to the journal in February 2019, but it finally got published!!!! I’m so happy!!!

For my other papers:

Please see the link:   The Effect of UV Light on the CaCl2/PEG 3350/DMSO Transformation Buffer for CRISPR Cas9-edited E. coli

And my Ladder Game Paper on this website.   It is very entertaining (Click the link in the above menu).

Have a fantastic day and stay safe!!!

This is Katy Chu signing off….

P. S. Below are a couple of photos of my temporary “dorm” room (you can see the rope ladder I used for my Ladder Game paper behind me on the ground). Due to the COVID pandemic, most Caltech students won’t be able to be on campus this fall and will have to attend remotely. My parents were able to fix up the shed in out backyard this last month so that I can have a quiet place to study, socialize remotely via teleconferencing, and possible study with friends in study groups outside. It has Wi-Fi, air-conditioning/heat, windows, etc. I still plan on sleeping in my comfy bed in the house though. It’s not quite the “freshman” experience, but under the circumstances I am happy!!! Thank you Mom and Dad!!!